This book explores the origin of jihad, terrorism, and global challenges from the West to Africa. It examines the 19th-century jihad in West Africa as a religious movement prone to respect of Islam. An example is the Sokoto Caliphate in Northern Nigeria in 1804, in which many Nigerians were granted scholarships to study abroad, which strengthened and united the community at the time. 
Peace and security are strategic issues that defines collective security at the African Union, European Union and United Nations. The attack on the United States of America, changed the definition of jihad, from the culture of the military machine, to respond to new security menace. Coordinated attacks in Europe, as in the West, provide adequate reason that, 21st century is an era of sectarian movements, violent extremism, jihadist tendencies and global terrorism. 
This work further analyzes criminal activities related to global security challenges in the 21st century. It explores contemporary threats and soft target attacks, modus operandi, terrorist cells in Africa and Europe. It equally out pins the impact of social media in relation to global security challenges by analyzing incidents on mega sporting events and business centres. Several theories and counter-terrorism techniques have been analyzed, for proper understanding of the menace posed by terrorist organizations, when hosting mega-events in the 21st century. However, the Russian grand strategy, is discussed as one of the best approaches for combating jihadist tendencies and global terrorism in the 21st century.

Jihadist Tendencies and Global Terrorism on Soft Targets

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  • 9789390917600 | Hardback | Dec 2021 | 86pp

    9789390917211 | Paperback | Jan 2022 | 86pp

    9789390917365 | eBook | Jan 2022 | 86pp